Education

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The

Endocannabinoid System

The Endocannabinoid system is a regulatory system within our bodies that affects many necessary biological processes. The Endocannabinoid system is made up of a group of molecules known as “endocannabinoids”. The endocannabinoid system also includes the “cannabinoid receptors” or CB receptors that they bind to.

How

Cannabidiol Works

Cannabidiol is the main active compound in hemp. Unlike THC, it is not psychoactive, so it doesn’t make people high. Inside the human body, there’s the endocannabinoid system, with receptors spread throughout the brain and body. THC activates the CB1 and CB2 receptors, while Cannabidiol does not directly stimulate these receptors.

The CB1 and CB2 receptors – Cannabinoid receptors are involved in a series of processes inside the human body, including the regulation of mood, pain sensation, appetite and memory. These receptors can be activated by endocannabinoids (produced by the human body) as well as by plant cannabinoids (like those found in hemp or cannabis), and they’re grouped in two main categories: CB1 and CB2. CB1 receptors are found mostly in the central nervous system, and in smaller numbers in the liver, kidneys and lungs, while CB2 receptors are part of the immune system and found in the hematopoietic blood cells as well [1] .

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CB1 plays a role in the production and release of neurotransmitters, and some cannabis products exert psychoactive effects stimulating these receptors [2]. At the same time, CB1 receptors are involved in the lipogenesis process that takes place inside the liver and seems to play a role in the maintenance of homeostasis (the body’s internal equilibrium). Various studies suggest that CB1 can influence pleasure, concentration, appetite, memory, and pain tolerance [3].

Activation of CB1 receptors on the membrane of neurons initiate a cascade of reaction affecting perception, movement, and memory. With their propensity to modulate neurological excitement, CB1 receptors are thought to be influential in treating neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease. CB1 receptors are highly prevalent in areas associated with pain, including the periaqueductal gray and the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. There is also mounting evidence to suggest CB1 receptors are essential in modulating the side effects, particularly pain and emesis, of chemotherapy.  CB1 receptors are almost absent in the medulla oblongata, the part of the brain stem responsible for respiratory and cardiovascular functions. Thus, there is not the risk of respiratory or cardiovascular failure that can be produced by some drugs.

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CB1 is present in high density throughout the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), and at a lower density in the immune cells and peripheral tissues. The pattern of distribution for the CB1 receptors is heterogeneous. This reflects its ability to alter cognition and memory and alter motor function control.

CB1 is activated by Anandamide and arachidonoylglycerol which are Endocannabinoid Neurotransmitters, or by phytocannabinoids like that of the compound THC.

CB2 receptors, on the other hand, affect the immune system, being involved in a variety of functions like immune suppression or apoptosis (programmed cell death). Studies suggest that CB2 modulates the pain sensation and could play a role in preventing various diseases, such as liver and kidney problems or neurodegenerative diseases [4] [5].

In immune tissue such as the spleen and tonsils, CB2 receptors modulate cytokine release, an essential part of the inflammatory process. In their capacity to mediate inflammation, CB2 receptors have shown significant potential for the treatment of arthritis, Crohn’s disease, and colitis. CB2 receptors have been implicated in cell proliferation and differentiation, suggesting promising anticancer drug targets.

The effects of

Cannabidiol inside the body

Cannabidiol does not stimulate the CB1 and CB2 receptors.

Instead, it activates other receptors, like the vanilloid, adenosine and serotonin receptors. By activating the TRPV-1 receptor, for example, cannabidiol plays a role in the regulation of body temperature, pain perception and inflammation [6]. Then, cannabidiol inhibits the FAAH enzyme, a compound that activates the CB1 receptor. By doing so, cannabidiol minimizes the activation of CB1 by THC, reducing its psychoactive effects.

The activation of adenosine receptors by cannabidiol gives the anti-anxiety and anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol. Adenosine receptors are also involved in the release of dopamine and glutamate, two neurotransmitters that play major roles inside the body. Dopamine is involved in cognition, motor control, motivation and reward mechanisms, while glutamate is one of the major mediators of excitatory signals, being involved in memory, learning, and cognition.

High concentrations of cannabidiol have been shown to activate the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor, exerting anti-depressant effects. The same receptor is involved in a series of processes from pain perception, appetite, nausea and anxiety to sleep and addiction mechanisms. Finally, cannabidiol blocks CPR55 signaling, decreasing bone reabsorption and cancer cell proliferation. GPR55 is widely present inside the brain, being linked with the modulation of bone density and blood pressure, as well as with cancer cell proliferation.

As previously said, cannabidiol blocks the psychoactive action of THC, this being one of the reasons it’s generally considered advantageous to combine cannabidiol and THC when for treatment purposes. However, the positive effects of cannabidiol are not dependent on the presence of THC, so our Zero THC product still provides the cannabidiol health benefits.

Full Spectrum

Hemp Oil

The proprietary extraction technology allows for high levels of phytocannabinoids, while eliminating unwanted amounts of THC and chlorophyll. To achieve this, we utilize a chromatography technique which allows for the identification and complete removal of the naturally occurring trace amounts of THC from the oil, while leaving intact the full spectrum profile of non-phytocannabinoids and synergistic compounds such as cannabigerol (CBG), cannabinol (CBN), cannabichromene (CBC), and over 40 naturally preserved terpenes.

Looking at the chart below, cannabidiol is not the only item beneficial to health, healing and well-being. The full spectrum hemp oil retains the original properties except for the THC. This allows the oil to function as designed by nature.

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These benefits are supported by claims made within US Patent US6630507. The patent was filed by the US Department of health in 1999: